A series of short articles on key topics in perioperative medicine, published in the British Journal of Hospital Medicine

POM in a Nutshell


Postoperative cognitive dysfunction

Dr C Sathananthan Consultant Anaesthetist, Department of Anaesthetics, Guys and St. Thomas’ Hospital London NHS Foundation Trust

08 Jun 2018

Some patients emerge from surgery and anaesthesia with noted deficits in cognitive function that were not present preoperatively. This cognitive impairment – postoperative cognitive dysfunction – is a recognized clinical phenomenon in patients undergoing major cardiac and non-cardiac surgery (Rundshagen, 2014). It represents a decline in neuropsychological domains including memory, executive functioning and speed of processing (Tsai et al, 2010).


Smoking and surgery

Dr Duncan Chambler MbChB FRCA FFICM, Dorset County Hospital & Dr Tom Blincoe BM(Hons), Royal Bournemouth Hospital

08 Mar 2018

Smoking prevalence is decreasing but remains common: in 2014 17% of adults were current smokers compared to 50% in 1974 (Action on Smoking and Health, 2017). As smoking is conclusively harmful, acute care providers are advised to provide support and advice for smoking cessation (NICE, 2013). Preoperative clinics offer an opportunity to modify patient behaviour prior to surgery.


The Perioperative Quality Improvement Programme: improving outcomes

Dr D Gilhooly & Dr SR Moonesinghe, Royal College of Anaesthetists, London

12 Feb 2018

The Perioperative Quality Improvement Programme has been set up as a multidisciplinary initiative to look at the quality of care and outcomes of patients undergoing major surgery in the NHS. Its aim is to reduce variation while effecting an overall improvement in morbidity.



Dr Catherine A Britton-Jones, Morriston Hospital, Swansea

14 Dec 2017

Prehabilitation is the process of enhancing a patient's ability to cope with particular stressors. Morbidity and mortality after elective surgery remain significant despite advances in anaesthetic and surgical techniques (Levett et al, 2016). By initiating prehabilitation programmes patients may be more receptive to implementing behavioural and lifestyle changes to improve their perioperative journey.


Enhanced recovery: pathways to better care

Dr Aoife Hegarty & Dr Nirav Shah, St George’s Hospital London

11 Oct 2017

Enhanced recovery after surgery comprises clinical pathways which aim to improve the quality of perioperative care and accelerate recovery. Benefits of enhanced recovery after surgery include reduced postoperative morbidity (Greco et al, 2014) and shorter length of stay, leading to reduced costs, greater throughput of patients and greater patient satisfaction. The underlying principles are reducing the surgical stress response and maintaining normal postoperative physiological functions. Strict adherence to the entire pathway produces better aggregate outcomes than implementing individual components (Gustafsson et al, 2011).

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